Qualification: BTEC National in IT Practitioners


Unit number: 28
Title: Website Production

Image: http://www.worcester.ac.uk

In this assessment, you will have opportunities to provide evidence against the following criteria.

Criteria 1 Web architecture, security risks and main protocols which enable network and internet communication
Criteria 2 Using graphics programs to design a website
Criteria 3 Building standards compliant pages and demonstrating how created pages meet a specific brief

Assignment purpose
Demonstrate a thorough understanding of web architecture. Be able to describe the main issues which influence website performance. Be able to explain the specific security risks which relate to websites and web servers. Describe in detail the main protocols which enable network and internet communication. Use graphics programs, hand-written documents or other software to design a web interface. Be able to describe the main web standards and how they can be used to create better web pages. Be able to build standards compliant pages. Demonstrate how created pages meet their brief.

You are employed by Web Space as a member of the web development team.
You have been selected to produce information documents which are to be published on the internet to help employees from other sectors to gain a thorough understanding of how internet technology works. It is hoped that by doing this, other people in the organisation will use the resources in a more efficient way to avoid clogging the system with oversized images, unnecessarily large files and other unwanted content.

Image: https://gekkoshot.com

Literacy skills development:
Stages and information in flow diagrams, Web 2.0, layer protocols, TCP/IP, hardware, software, laws, guidelines, tools, HTML, CSS, server side scripting, client reviews, defined requirements, spell check, proof reading, plagiarism, acknowledging source.

Numeracy skills development:
Calculate the spacing, relating to distances, during the process of web design.

Task 1 Web architecture, security risks and main protocols which enable network and internet communication

P1 is to outline the web architecture and components which enable internet and web functionality
P2 is to explain the user side and server side factors that influence the performance of a website
P3 is to explain the security risks and protection mechanisms involved in website performance
M1 is to explain the role of web architecture in website communications
D1 is to explain the role of the TCP/IP protocol and how it links to application layer

1.A Produce a short report (include screen grabs) intended to explain the following web concepts and their function to trainees who have little or no knowledge of the subject.

  • Internet Service Providers (ISP)
 An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a company that supplies you with access to the Internet, usually for a fee. The most common ways to connect to an ISP are by using a phone line (dial-up) or broadband connection (cable or DSL).  Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise privately owned. Broadband Internet service truly is the most used form of Internet access because of its high access speeds; it is offered in four different forms, DSL (or Digital Subscriber Line), also fiber-optic, cable, and satellite.
Fibre Broadband: What is FTTC aka Fibre to the Cabinet and what does it mean?

Example: BT Infinity fibre broadbandbt-logo


BT Infinity is a broadband product that uses the latest fibre optictechnology to provide a much faster and more powerful internet connection. BT Infinity offers download speeds of up to 160Mb a second, much faster than standard broadband which is delivered completely over copper wires. With Ultra Fibre 30, the service has the ability to deliver Fibre speeds up to 30mbps downstream and 10mbps upstream. Ultra Fibre 100 has the ability to deliver Fibre speeds up to 100mbps downstream and 20mbpsupstream. Ultra Fibre 200 can provide 200Mbps downstream and 20Mbps upstream. Fibre to the Home connectivity means that your internet signal travels over optical fibre cables directly into your home. A fibre optic cable uses light to transmit data and is capable of speeds up to 1Gbps. Fibre is an alternative to existing connectivity types. Fibre broadband is a new type of broadband which uses fibre optic cables to help increase the speed of your broadband connection. Also referred to as ‘super-fast broadband‘ or ‘next generation broadband‘, with high connection speeds it will offer greatly improved digital service for all.

How is BT Infinity different from ‘standard’ broadband?

BT Infinity BT Broadband
Download speed of up to 300Mb (depending on which BT Infinity option you have) Download speed up to 17Mb
Upload speed of up to 20Mb (depending on which BT Infinity option you have) Upload speed of up to 1Mb
Uses a much faster fibre optic cable from the telephone exchange to your street cabinet, or directly into your home Uses copper phone line all the way from your home to the telephone exchange
  • Web hosting servers and services e.g. GoDaddy


To be available on the Internet, all websites must be hosted on a web server. A website owner can host their website themselves but they need the equipment (hardware and software) and an internet connection to cope with users who will access the site. The more effective and simpler method of doing this is to pay for a web hosting service such as GoDaddy or WordPress. This allows the website designer with space on an existing web server. These hosts provide more than just space for the user to host their website. They also provide the necessary tools, website management facilities and support.


Video: Working | GoDaddy Big Game Commercial


Image: GoDaddy CPanel

  • Domain name


Each website is identified by its unique IP address of its web server. These are rather difficult to remember when you need to find a website, and are easy to mistype. In which case a website needs to purchase a domain in order to go online. This domain name is linked to the Internet Provider address of the website server.

A domain name is the characters which appear between the prefix (eg www) and the suffix (eg .com) for example ‘tesco’.


A domain name is often required to be easy to remember, simple to type and meaninful, cleary relflecting the site’s content.

  • World Wide Web, Web 2.0

The Internet is the collection of pages and the content on this huge network known as the WWW, a technology that allows it to exist: the pages, the servers etc.

Tim Berners-Lee was the inventor of hypertext, which we now call hyperlinks, the fundamental tools that underpins the WWW allows the content of the Internet to exist.


Image: Tim Berners-Lee, 1990

In 1990, Berners-Lee developed the first version of the World Wide Web while working at CERN.

Web 2.0
ˌwɛb tuː pɔɪnt ˈəʊ/
  1. the second stage of development of the Internet, characterized especially by the change from static web pages to dynamic or user-generated content and the growth of social media.
    Image: https://media.licdn.com


Image: http://www.networkinformation.info

Comparison with Web 1.0

In 2005, Tim O’Reilly and Dale Dougherty held a brainstorming session to elucidate characteristics and components of the Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 transition and what changed:

Web 1.0 Web 2.0
DoubleClick, an advertising service which puts banner ads on websites Google AdSense, an advertising services which places automatic text, image, video, or interactive media advertisements, that are targeted to website content and audience
Ofoto an online digital photography website, on which users could store, share, view and print digital photos Flickr, an image hosting and video hosting website and web services suite
Akamai a content delivery network (CDN) and cloud services provider of distributed computingplatforms BitTorrent, a communications protocol of peer-to-peer file sharing (“P2P”) which is used to distribute data and electronic files over the Internet
mp3.com, a website providing information about digital music and artists, songs, services, community, and technologies and a legal, free music-sharing service Napster, a pioneering peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharingInternet service that emphasized sharing digital audio files, typically songs, encoded in MP3 format
Britannica Online, written by professionals and experts Wikipedia, can be written and edited by any person, even amateurs and non-experts
personal websites blogging
evite upcoming.org and EVDB
domain name speculation search engine optimization (SEO)
page views cost per click
“screen scraping” web services
publishing mass user participation
content management systems wikis that allow many users to contribute
directories (taxonomy) “tagging” of websites, images and videos (folksonomy)
“stickiness” syndication

Web 2.0 can be described in three parts:

  • Rich Internet application (RIA) — defines the experience brought from desktop to browser, whether it is “rich” from a graphical point of view or a usability/interactivity or features point of view.
  • Web-oriented architecture (WOA) — defines how Web 2.0 applications expose their functionality so that other applications can leverage and integrate the functionality providing a set of much richer applications. Examples are feeds, RSS feeds, web services, mashups.
  • Social Web — defines how Web 2.0 websites tends to interact much more with the end user and make the end-user an integral part of the website, either by adding her profile, adding comments on content, uploading new content, or adding user-generated content (e.g., personal digital photos).


A third important part of Web 2.0 is the social web. The social Web consists of a number of online tools and platforms where people share their perspectives, opinions, thoughts and experiences. Web 2.0 applications tend to interact much more with the end user. As such, the end user is not only a user of the application but also a participant by:

  • Podcasting
  • Blogging
  • Tagging
  • Curating with RSS
  • Social bookmarking
  • Social networking
  • Social media
  • Wikis
  • Web content voting


Web 2.0 could allow for more collaborative education. For example, blogs give students a public space to interact with one another and the content of the class.

Web 3.0

(needs research)

  • Hardware such as routers


The main hardware used for websites are servers such as web servers, email servers and proxy servers. Routers are a key networking component in Internet networking. They are devices which can direct traffic to the right locations, whether going to a web server or back out to the user.

The main programs used for the Internet are:

  • Software such as browser, mail

A browser is used to view web pages. There are a variety of programs available including Microsoft Internet Explorer, Chrome, Safari, Mozilla/Firefox (free to download from the internet). Different browsers provide different toolbars and functionality.

unnamed     internet_explorer_web_browser_60162    yosemite-safai_icon   mozilla_firefox_logo

Email can be accessed through programs such as Microsoft Outlook or Mail. Some internet service providers offer a free email address as part of their deal. There is also a variety of email services on the internet, some free such as Gmail, and some for which you pay a fee such as http://www.fastmail.fm.


  • Transmission control protocol (TCP)/Internet protocol (IP)

Protocols are the agreed way that different systems interact with each other, sometimes knows as the ‘handshake’. Working similar to a translator between two people who speak different languages and are attempting to communicate.

TCP/IP is responsible for transporting data and making sure it reached the right/correct address. It consist of mainly four layers – link layer, Internet layer, transport layer and application layer – and is included in every data package that is sent across the Internet. Each of these layers deal with a different issue.

Image result for link layer tcp/ip

  1. The link layer is the lowest and deals with hardware, navigating through the myriad of routers, servers and other machinery to each its destination.
  1. The Internet layer focuses on targeting the IP address.
  2. The transport layer established communications between hosts and moves the package towards its destination.
  3. The application layer, the highest layer, contains other protocols including HTTP, HTTPS and SMTP.

The hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) sends out a request to the client to establish permission to data. The client may be the final destination or just a node on the journey.

In HTTPS, the S stands for secure and does the same job but ensures a secure connection. This is used in eCommerce, banking websites and where private data is being transferred e.g. payment details.

Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) is the main protocol for the transfer of email.

Other protocols include POP (post office protocol) and IMAP (Internet message access protocol) which operate at the client-level to access mail servers.

Include a flow diagram that shows the different stages and the information which passes through them.


This provides evidence for (P1)


1.B Explain the user side and server side factors that influence the performance of a website. You need to focus on the factors which affect website performance. Your report should consider the benefits of server side capabilities for a company website, although you should also consider the limitations of the hardware and software that customers may be using to browse the website.

Areas to cover:

User side factors

  • Download speed
  • Cache of memory, processor speed, level of visitors

Serve side factors

  • Available bandwidth, scripting involved before page load
  • File types
  • Sound files e.g. wav, mp3
  • Image files e.g. jpeg, png
  • Video/Animation files e.g. gif, mp4

This provides evidence for (P2)

1.C As the internet has become more popular, criminals and prestige seeking hackers have used a variety of techniques to compromise web servers. Produce a leaflet which identifies some of the main threats to web servers and what steps can be taken by website hosts and website owners to protect against these threats in order to maintain good website performance and keep data secure. Your leaflet must cover the following:

Security Risks
Identity theft

Protection mechanisms
Secured Socket Layers (SSL)

Consumer Credit Act (1974)
Copyright, Designs and Patents Act (1988)
Data Protection Act (1998)
Computer Misuse Act (1990)
Electronic Commerce Regulations (2002)

This provides evidence for (P3)

1.D Explain in detail how the following types of website function, your answers should contain details of how information is stored, retrieved and manipulated during their operation and how the site interacts with a user. You are required to clearly explain the two-way nature of web communications and how web architecture enables this.

  • A Search Engine e.g. Google
  • An e-commerce business-to-consumer website e.g. Amazon
  • A social media site e.g. Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat

Your answer should be in the form of a technical report with diagrams where necessary, correctly structured and thoroughly spell checked.

This provides evidence for (M1)

1.E TCP/IP Protocols are the fundamental heart of internet function and without them there would be no World Wide Web. Your task is to explain with the aid of diagrams how TPC/IP works and how it enables web applications to work. As this is a Distinction criterion your explanations must contain a suitable level of technical language and provide clear, well-written and detailed information.

Your answer should be provided in the form of a structured technical document containing an outline of the content and your explanation using suitable headings and sub-headings.

This provides evidence for (D1)

Word Limit 1200

Task 2 Using graphics programs to design a website 

P4 is using appropriate design tools, design an interactive website to meet a client need
M2 explain the tools and techniques used in the creation of an interactive website
D2 is to discuss the techniques that can be used on web pages to aid user access to information

2.A Using appropriate tools, design a interactive website to meet a client need. Carry out the planning work for a multi-page, two-way interactive website. Pay particular attention to making sure you define the requirements and purpose of the site clearly and realistically (as this is extended to D3). Your plan should take form of annotated drawing as it would in a normal web design process.

Include the following with your specification:

  • Client and user needs
  • Mood board
  • Storyboard
  • Colour scheme
  • Screen designs
  • Outline of content

This provides evidence for (P4)

2.B In the form of a written report, explain the process of designing an interactive website and the tools and techniques used at each stage. Your report needs to emphasise the two-way nature of interactivity and how your design techniques enable a website to function as its best.

You must show a strong, accurate understanding of the tools you have used, and be able to articulate clearly the techniques you have employed.

This provides evidence for (M2)

2.C You are required to meet with their technical team and provide explanations of how the site functions technically. In advance of this meeting, prepare technical specifications which indicate what the various components of your pages do and how they achieve the original intentions of the site build. This document needs to describe all technologies used, the reasons for their use and diagrams to provide use cases to illustrate how you think site visitors will use the site.

This report provides evidence for (D2)

Task 3 Building standards compliant pages and demonstrating how created pages meet a specific brief.

P5 is to create an interactive website to meet a client need.
M3 is to improve the effectiveness of a website on the basis of a client review
D3 is to demonstrate that a created website meets the defined requirements and achieves the defined purpose

3.A Use suitable languages and software applications and create an interactive website to meet a client need. Any method of creation can be used; the unit is non-specific on software or techniques. The website should feature a two-way interactivity as well as being multi-page. Test the website for any errors in terms of functionality and content. When complete, produce a short write-up of the construction of your page and the standards used. Insert a screenshot of your pages for reference purposes. Finally, print off the CSS code and the HTML code and include them with your assignment.

Your template must include the following:
– Web pages
– Navigation
– Interactive features
– Animation, audio and visual elements

Following approval of your template by your client (tutor), you will then build the complete website.

This provides evidence for (P5)

3.B Show your website to your classmates ask for their review. Take a note of the comments and improve the effectiveness of your website on the basis of their review. You must show that you have adapted and improved the website in a measurable way.

This provides evidence for (M3)

3.C Demonstrate that your website meets the defined requirements and achieves the defined purpose. This can be evidenced through a series of annotated screen shots.

This provides evidence for (D3)

Evidence checklist:

Task 1
P1 – Report
P2 – Article for general reading
P3 – Leaflet
M1 – Report
D1 – Report

Task 2
P4 – Design specification, Mood board, Storyboard, Colour scheme, Screen designs, Outline of content
M2 – Report
D2 – Report

Task 3      
P5 – Interactive website, screen grabs and code
M3 – Feedback form, analysis, review documentation
D3 – Technical specification, Annotated screenshots

Sources of information: (Insert useful publications, websites etc.)
The textbook, Youtube.com, Google.com

Unit assessment criteria

P1 outline the web architecture and components which enable internet and web functionality
P2 explain the user side and server side factors that influence the performance of a website
P2 explain the user side and server side factors that influence the performance of a website
P4 using appropriate design tools, design an interactive website to meet a client need
P5 create an interactive website to meet a client need
M1 explain the role of web architecture in website communications
M2 explain the tools and techniques used in the creation of an interactive website
M3 improve the effectiveness of a website on the basis of a client review
D1 explain the role of the TCP/IP protocol and how it links to application layer protocols
D2 discuss the techniques that can be used on web pages to aid user access to information
D3 demonstrate that a created website meets the defined requirements and achieves the defined purpose